iOS各种手势识别的详细使用教程

Home / iOS MrLee 2016-1-27 2606

1、UIGestureRecognizer介绍
做iOS开发,如果要做出复杂炫丽的效果就必须学好手势。手势识别在iOS上非常重要,手势操作移动设备的重要特征,极大的增加了移动设备使用便捷性。 iOS系统在3.2以后,为方便开发这使用一些常用的手势,提供了UIGestureRecognizer类。手势识别UIGestureRecognizer类是个抽象类,下面的子类是具体的手势,开发这可以直接使用这些手势识别。
  • UITapGestureRecognizer
  • UIPinchGestureRecognizer
  • UIRotationGestureRecognizer
  • UISwipeGestureRecognizer
  • UIPanGestureRecognizer
  • UILongPressGestureRecognizer
上面的手势对应的操作是:
  • Tap(点一下)
  • Pinch(二指往內或往外拨动,平时经常用到的缩放)
  • Rotation(旋转)
  • Swipe(滑动,快速移动)
  • Pan (拖移,慢速移动)
  •  LongPress(长按)
UIGestureRecognizer的继承关系如下:


2、使用手势的步骤
使用手势很简单,分为两步: 创建手势实例。当创建手势时,指定一个回调方法,当手势开始,改变、或结束时,回调方法被调用。 添加到需要识别的View中。每个手势只对应一个View,当屏幕触摸在View的边界内时,如果手势和预定的一样,那就会回调方法。 ps:一个手势只能对应一个View,但是一个View可以有多个手势。 建议在真机上运行这些手势,模拟器操作不太方便,可能导致你认为手势失效。
3、Pan 拖动手势:
UIImageView *snakeImageView = [[UIImageView alloc] initWithImage:[UIImage imageNamed:@"snake.png"]];
    snakeImageView.frame = CGRectMake(50, 50, 100, 160);
    UIPanGestureRecognizer *panGestureRecognizer = [[UIPanGestureRecognizer alloc]
                                                    initWithTarget:self
                                                    action:@selector(handlePan:)];    
    [snakeImageView addGestureRecognizer:panGestureRecognizer];
    [self.view setBackgroundColor:[UIColor whiteColor]];
    [self.view addSubview:snakeImageView];

新建一个ImageView,然后添加手势 回调方法:
- (void) handlePan:(UIPanGestureRecognizer*) recognizer
{
    CGPoint translation = [recognizer translationInView:self.view];
    recognizer.view.center = CGPointMake(recognizer.view.center.x + translation.x,
                                   recognizer.view.center.y + translation.y);
    [recognizer setTranslation:CGPointZero inView:self.view];
    
}

4、Pinch缩放手势
UIPinchGestureRecognizer *pinchGestureRecognizer = [[UIPinchGestureRecognizer alloc]
                                                        initWithTarget:self
                                                        action:@selector(handlePinch:)];
[snakeImageView addGestureRecognizer:pinchGestureRecognizer];

- (void) handlePinch:(UIPinchGestureRecognizer*) recognizer
{
    recognizer.view.transform = CGAffineTransformScale(recognizer.view.transform, recognizer.scale, recognizer.scale);
    recognizer.scale = 1;
}

5、Rotation旋转手势
UIRotationGestureRecognizer *rotateRecognizer = [[UIRotationGestureRecognizer alloc]
                                                     initWithTarget:self
                                                     action:@selector(handleRotate:)];
    [snakeImageView addGestureRecognizer:rotateRecognizer];
 
- (void) handleRotate:(UIRotationGestureRecognizer*) recognizer
{
    recognizer.view.transform = CGAffineTransformRotate(recognizer.view.transform, recognizer.rotation);
    recognizer.rotation = 0;
}

添加了这几个手势后,运行看效果,程序中的imageView放了一个
                    /^\/^\
                  _|__|  O|
         \/     /~     \_/ \
          \____|__________/  \
                 \_______      \
                         `\     \                 \
                           |     |                  \
                          /      /                    \
                         /     /                       \\
                       /      /                         \ \
                      /     /                            \  \
                    /     /             _----_            \   \
                   /     /           _-~      ~-_         |   |
                  (      (        _-~    _--_    ~-_     _/   |
                   \      ~-____-~    _-~    ~-_    ~-_-~    /
                     ~-_           _-~          ~-_       _-~
                        ~--______-~                ~-___-~
的图片,在模拟器上拖动是没问题的。缩放和旋转有点问题,估计是因为在模拟器上的模拟的两个接触点距离在imageView的边界外了,所以操作无效果。 建议在真机上运行这个手势。 在模拟器上缩放和选择的操作技巧: 可以把imageView的frame值设置大一点,按住alt键,按下触摸板(不按下不行),这样就可以旋转和缩放了。
6、添加第二个ImagView并添加手势
记住:一个手势只能添加到一个View,两个View当然要有两个手势的实例了
- (void)viewDidLoad
{
    [super viewDidLoad];
    UIImageView *snakeImageView = [[UIImageView alloc] initWithImage:[UIImage imageNamed:@"snake.png"]];
    UIImageView *dragonImageView = [[UIImageView alloc] initWithImage:[UIImage imageNamed:@"dragon.png"]];
    snakeImageView.frame = CGRectMake(120, 120, 100, 160);
    dragonImageView.frame = CGRectMake(50, 50, 100, 160);
    [self.view addSubview:snakeImageView];
    [self.view addSubview:dragonImageView];
    
    for (UIView *view in self.view.subviews) {
        UIPanGestureRecognizer *panGestureRecognizer = [[UIPanGestureRecognizer alloc]
                                                        initWithTarget:self
                                                        action:@selector(handlePan:)];
        
        UIPinchGestureRecognizer *pinchGestureRecognizer = [[UIPinchGestureRecognizer alloc]
                                                            initWithTarget:self
                                                            action:@selector(handlePinch:)];
        
        UIRotationGestureRecognizer *rotateRecognizer = [[UIRotationGestureRecognizer alloc]
                                                         initWithTarget:self
                                                         action:@selector(handleRotate:)];
        
        [view addGestureRecognizer:panGestureRecognizer];
        [view addGestureRecognizer:pinchGestureRecognizer];
        [view addGestureRecognizer:rotateRecognizer];
        [view setUserInteractionEnabled:YES];
    }
    [self.view setBackgroundColor:[UIColor whiteColor]];     
}

多添加了一条龙的view,两个view都能接收上面的三种手势。运行效果如下:

7、拖动(pan手势)速度(以较快的速度拖放后view有滑行的效果)
如何实现呢? 监视手势是否结束 监视触摸的速度
- (void) handlePan:(UIPanGestureRecognizer*) recognizer
{
    CGPoint translation = [recognizer translationInView:self.view];
    recognizer.view.center = CGPointMake(recognizer.view.center.x + translation.x,
                                       recognizer.view.center.y + translation.y);
    [recognizer setTranslation:CGPointZero inView:self.view];
    
    if (recognizer.state == UIGestureRecognizerStateEnded) {
        
        CGPoint velocity = [recognizer velocityInView:self.view];
        CGFloat magnitude = sqrtf((velocity.x * velocity.x) + (velocity.y * velocity.y));
        CGFloat slideMult = magnitude / 200;
        NSLog(@"magnitude: %f, slideMult: %f", magnitude, slideMult);
        
        float slideFactor = 0.1 * slideMult; // Increase for more of a slide
        CGPoint finalPoint = CGPointMake(recognizer.view.center.x + (velocity.x * slideFactor),
                                         recognizer.view.center.y + (velocity.y * slideFactor));
        finalPoint.x = MIN(MAX(finalPoint.x, 0), self.view.bounds.size.width);
        finalPoint.y = MIN(MAX(finalPoint.y, 0), self.view.bounds.size.height);
        
        [UIView animateWithDuration:slideFactor*2 delay:0 options:UIViewAnimationOptionCurveEaseOut animations:^{
            recognizer.view.center = finalPoint;
        } completion:nil];
        
    }

代码实现解析: 计算速度向量的长度(估计大部分都忘了)这些知识了。 如果速度向量小于200,那就会得到一个小于的小数,那么滑行会很短 基于速度和速度因素计算一个终点 确保终点不会跑出父View的边界 使用UIView动画使view滑动到终点 运行后,快速拖动图像view放开会看到view还会在原来的方向滑行一段路。
8、同时触发两个view的手势
手势之间是互斥的,如果你想同时触发蛇和龙的view,那么需要实现协议
UIGestureRecognizerDelegate,
 
@interface ViewController : UIViewController
@end
//并在协议这个方法里返回YES。
-(BOOL)gestureRecognizer:(UIGestureRecognizer *)gestureRecognizer shouldRecognizeSimultaneouslyWithGestureRecognizer:(UIGestureRecognizer *)otherGestureRecognizer
{
    return YES;
}
//把self作为代理设置给手势:
panGestureRecognizer.delegate = self;
pinchGestureRecognizer.delegate = self;
rotateRecognizer.delegate = self;
//这样可以同时拖动或旋转缩放两个view了。

9、tap点击手势
这里为了方便看到tap的效果,当点击一下屏幕时,播放一个声音。
为了播放声音,我们加入AVFoundation.framework这个框架。
- (AVAudioPlayer *)loadWav:(NSString *)filename {
    NSURL * url = [[NSBundle mainBundle] URLForResource:filename withExtension:@"wav"];
    NSError * error;
    AVAudioPlayer * player = [[AVAudioPlayer alloc] initWithContentsOfURL:url error:&error];
    if (!player) {
        NSLog(@"Error loading %@: %@", url, error.localizedDescription);
    } else {
        [player prepareToPlay];
    }
    return player;
}

我会在最后例子代码给出完整代码,添加手势的步骤和前面一样的。
#import 
#import 
@interface ViewController : UIViewController
@property (strong) AVAudioPlayer * chompPlayer;
@property (strong) AVAudioPlayer * hehePlayer;
@end
- (void)handleTap:(UITapGestureRecognizer *)recognizer {
    [self.chompPlayer play];
}

运行,点一下某个图,就会播放一个咬东西的声音。
不过这个点击播放声音有点缺陷,就是在慢慢拖动的时候也会播放。这使得两个手势重合了。怎么解决呢?使用手势的:requireGestureRecognizerToFail方法。
10、手势的依赖性
在viewDidLoad的循环里添加这段代码:
[tapRecognizer requireGestureRecognizerToFail:panGestureRecognizer];

意思就是,当如果pan手势失败,就是没发生拖动,才会出发tap手势。这样如果你有轻微的拖动,那就是pan手势发生了。tap的声音就不会发出来了。
11、自定义手势 自定义手势继承:UIGestureRecognizer,实现下面的方法:
– touchesBegan:withEvent:
– touchesMoved:withEvent:
– touchesEnded:withEvent:
- touchesCancelled:withEvent:

新建一个类,继承UIGestureRecognizer,代码如下:
.h文件
#import 
typedef enum {
    DirectionUnknown = 0,
    DirectionLeft,
    DirectionRight
} Direction;
@interface HappyGestureRecognizer : UIGestureRecognizer
@property (assign) int tickleCount;
@property (assign) CGPoint curTickleStart;
@property (assign) Direction lastDirection;
@end

.m文件
#import "HappyGestureRecognizer.h"
#import 
#define REQUIRED_TICKLES        2
#define MOVE_AMT_PER_TICKLE     25
@implementation HappyGestureRecognizer
- (void)touchesBegan:(NSSet *)touches withEvent:(UIEvent *)event {
    UITouch * touch = [touches anyObject];
    self.curTickleStart = [touch locationInView:self.view];
}
- (void)touchesMoved:(NSSet *)touches withEvent:(UIEvent *)event {
    
    // Make sure we've moved a minimum amount since curTickleStart
    UITouch * touch = [touches anyObject];
    CGPoint ticklePoint = [touch locationInView:self.view];
    CGFloat moveAmt = ticklePoint.x - self.curTickleStart.x;
    Direction curDirection;
    if (moveAmt < 0) {
        curDirection = DirectionLeft;
    } else {
        curDirection = DirectionRight;
    }
    if (ABS(moveAmt) < MOVE_AMT_PER_TICKLE) return; // 确认方向改变了 if (self.lastDirection == DirectionUnknown || (self.lastDirection == DirectionLeft && curDirection == DirectionRight) || (self.lastDirection == DirectionRight && curDirection == DirectionLeft)) { // 挠痒次数 self.tickleCount++; self.curTickleStart = ticklePoint; self.lastDirection = curDirection; // 一旦挠痒次数超过指定数,设置手势为结束状态 // 这样回调函数会被调用。 if (self.state == UIGestureRecognizerStatePossible && self.tickleCount > REQUIRED_TICKLES) {
            [self setState:UIGestureRecognizerStateEnded];
        }
    }
    
}
- (void)reset {
    self.tickleCount = 0;
    self.curTickleStart = CGPointZero;
    self.lastDirection = DirectionUnknown;
    if (self.state == UIGestureRecognizerStatePossible) {
        [self setState:UIGestureRecognizerStateFailed];
    }
}
- (void)touchesEnded:(NSSet *)touches withEvent:(UIEvent *)event
{
    [self reset];
}
- (void)touchesCancelled:(NSSet *)touches withEvent:(UIEvent *)event
{
    [self reset];
}
@end

调用自定义手势和上面一样,回到这样写:
- (void)handleHappy:(HappyGestureRecognizer *)recognizer{
    [self.hehePlayer play];
}

手势成功后播放呵呵笑的声音。 在真机上运行,按住某个view,快速左右拖动,就会发出笑的声音了。
代码解析: 先获取起始坐标:curTickleStart 通过和ticklePoint的x值对比,得出当前的放下是向左还是向右。再算出移动的x的值是否比MOVE_AMT_PER_TICKLE距离大,如果太则返回。 再判断是否有三次是不同方向的动作,如果是则手势结束,回调。

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